Sunday, February 26, 2017

Austrian Money


Buda-Peste c.1834?: 1828

3-Rubel = Fl. 4.70 (Austrian? So.German?)

1828-34: 1 Ozt. Platinum (SPb: Coined, Silver Rate) = Fl. 14.12 

Citation: Allgemeine Weltkunde (1835) p.322
 

c.1834?: likely, dated sources

Citation: The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, Vol. 1 (1839)
 



USA, c.1840/1


 


Late June, 1839:
Citation: Journal des oesterreichischen Lloyd's, IV, no.51 (1839)
 

Citation: Austria oder Oesterreichischer Universal-Kalender..., Vol. 1 (1840)

£ 1. (Au) = Fl. 9.5725
Fr. 20. = Fl. 7.5609
руб 5. = Fl. 7.8220  

Fl. 1.00 (Au) = £ 0.2243 ; Fr. 2.5879; 0.6485 руб (Ag); S$ 0.4859 
whereas Fl. 1.00 (Au) = 0.6495 руб (Pt) : a likely error, not -0.14% discount.
 






 



 





Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Spanish Dollars

The legal tolerance for 8-Reales (1728 - 1825) was a maximum 27.2638 g and minimum 26.8646 g. (>414.584125 Grain = Bullion.) Per Royal decree, ideal weight in circulation was 27.0642 g (417.664423 English Grains Troy) 

The maximum weight "Pillar Dollars" would have been 875.55 Ozt per 1,000;  
in bullion-weight,"Pillar Dollars" were legally < 863.70 Ozt per 1,000. 

At full Mint-Weight, uncirculated, the Spanish 8-Reales (Piastre, Dollar, Peso Duro, etc.) should weight 27.2 g. or 419.76 -420 Grains.
 
Sir Issac Newton's report and various assays at the London Mint presumed the Regal-Weight of Spanish Mexican Dollars 870.83 Ozt per 1,000; the standard weight of said Dollars in London was 868.125 Ozt per 1,000. (-0.31% lighter, a loss of 1.3 Grains per coin); in Great Britain, the standard weight (c.1716?) of circulated "Pillar Dollars" in was declared 868.75 per 1,000.

1716: S$ 1. (Circulated, ? - 1716) = 0.86875 Ozt ; 

c.1716: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Average) ~ 868.75 Ozt

Newton's Table Weights, republished :

 

Mexico. 8-Reales, 1733 Mo-MF, MS 65:  27.02 g (~416.98 grains)

1733: Mexican S$ 1. (Circulated Globe 1733) = 0.8687 Ozt ; 
1733: 1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars from 1733  ~868.7 Ozt





Germany, 1738:


Where S$ 8.625 = 7.512144 Ozt,

1738: S$ 1. = 0.870973217 Ozt






c.1746?? 
1733: S$ 1. (New 1746) = 0.8675 Ozt 
c.1746?: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Average) ~ 867.5 Ozt



UK, c.1745:

S$ 1. = £ 0.2138




USA, c.1749

S$ 1. (Average, Full S$ 1. Coin Weight) = 0.86875 Ozt



UK, 1751:

The standard weight "Pillar Dollars" was 867 - 869 Ozt per 1,000.

Where 117.1875 Marcas (1 Marca = 7.3967 Ozt) = 867.35 Ozt

1751: 1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars (Average) ~867.35 Ozt

Citation: The universal merchant: containing the rationale of commerce, in theory &c. ; William Horsley (1753) pp.


In Amsterdam, 100 Marks (830.73 Ozt) S$ 2. were added to meet the standard exchange ; at the London-reported weight of Cadiz Dollars, S$ 960. = 100 Marks

1751: 1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars (Average) ~867.35 Ozt



Mexico. 8-Reales, 1754 Mo-MF, MS 64:  27.11 g (~418.37 Grains)

1754: Mexican S$ 1. (Uncirculated Globe 1754) = 0.8716 Ozt ; 
1754: 1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars (Average) ~871.6 Ozt


Nearly Full Weight, Mexico. 8-Reales, 1762 Mo-MM, MS 63:  27.21 g (419.9145 Grains)
c.1762: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Average)  ~874.8 Ozt

Where 938 Onzas weighed 867.351 Ozt, 

c.1759: 8-Reales, : 416.328 Grains
c.1759: Cadiz S$ 1. (1760) = 0.86735 Ozt
c.1759: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Average)  =  867.35 Ozt
 
1760:


c.1760: 

Where 938 Onzas weighed 867.351 Ozt, 

c.1760: Cadiz S$ 1. (1760) = 0.86735 Ozt
c.1760: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Average) ~ 867.35 Ozt




1761:


c.1761: S$ 1. (Average, Assumed) = 0.8667 Ozt ;
c.1761: 1,000 S$ Dollars = 866.66 Ozt

1780:




c.1759?/1762: S$ 1. (Average, London) = 0.868 Ozt ;



c.1759: 1,000 S$ Dollars =  866.66 Ozt


c.1763: 1,000 S$ Dollars c.1763 = 868. Ozt





1762: Mexican S$ 1. (Uncirculated Globe 1762) = 0.8748 Ozt ; 
1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars from 1754  ~874.8 Ozt




Nearly Full Weight, Colombia 8-Reales, 1770-NR VJ, MS 64:  27.07 g (417.754 Grains)

1770: Colombian S$ 1. (Uncirculated Globe 1770) ~ 0.87 Ozt ; 
1,000 Colombian S$ Globe Dollars from 1770 ~  870.3 Ozt


Spain, 1772:






Remedy in Fineness


Nearly Full Wgt, Bolivia 8-Reales, 1774 PTS-JR , MS 65: 27.01 g (416.83 Grains)
(1,000 S$1. of this weight should total ~868.39 Ozt.)

1774: Bolivian S$ 1. (Uncirculated Globe 1774) ~ 0.8684 Ozt ; 
1,000 Bolivian S$ Globe Dollars from 1774 ~868.4 Ozt



Nearly Full Wgt, Mex. 8-Reales, 1779 Mo-FF, MS 62: 26.99 g (416.52 Grains)
(1,000 Mexican S$1. from 1779 should total ~868 Ozt.)


1773: 
c. 176?-72: 8-Reales, Mo : Standard Wgt 26.956 g (416 Grains; 0.8665 Ozt.)
1,000 Mexican S$ Globe Dollars, Average ~866.5 Ozt
 


Consistent through 1830




Lightly Circulated, Peru 8-Reales, 1779, MS 64: 26.90 g (415.13 Grains)
(1,000 S$1. of this weight should total ~864.85 Ozt.) 



c.1781:
Where 560.23 Holland asses = 414.2839 Grains troy,
(1,000 S$1. of this weight should total ~863.09 Ozt.)




1787: Well-Circulated, 8-Reales, c.1772?: 26.76 g (413 Grains)
c.1787: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Circulated) ~ 860.41 Ozt  
1787: Lightly Circulated, 8-Reales, c.1785?: 26.95 g (416 Grains)
c.1787: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Better) ~ 866.66 Ozt 



USA, 1791:
 


c.1796/7:

1 Ozt Fine Ag = S$ 1.09106




1799:

Where 103.125 Hambourg Cologne Marcs = 24.1164 kgs; 

S$1 = 0.77536 Ozt Fine Ag ; S$ 1. = 0.83828379 Ozt. (402.376 Grains)
  Citation: Manuel général pour les arbitrages de Changes &c. ; Anton Reiser (1800)


Where 103.125 Hambourg Cologne Marcs = 775.1563 Ozt; 

S$ 1 = 0.775156 Ozt Fine Ag ; S$ 1. = 0.83806324 Ozt. (402.27 Grains)





India, Madras: 1799:
Where 100 Star Pagodas weighed 10.95 Ozt, .806849 Fine Au, 

1799: 1 Ozt Fine Gold (Madas, India) S$ 15.06849


1802: India, Bombay:


 

S$ 1. was 2.25 Sicca Rupees (403.9875 Grains, .979167 Fine = 395.5711 Grains Fine Ag)
... assumed S$1 weighs 431.6 Grains (premium; not adjusted for weight loss in both coins); where obviously S$4.444 =


  
c.1810/1


Where 73 vals = 0.89024356 ozt. (427.31691 Grains) the Spanish Dollar was overweight.


c.1806:


S$ 1. (1801) = 0.867 Ozt. (416.16 Grains) .896 Fine Ag
S$ 1. (1801 Coin, "very new") = 0.864916667 Ozt.

~5 years in circulation; (Avg.) Wear: 0.20 Grain, per year.


 



 



c. 1809: 8-Reales, 1765 Mo-MM: (416.5 Grains) 

~43 years in circulation, (Best?) Wear: 0.081395349 Grain, per year.


1811: India, Bombay:
c.1810: 1790: 8-Reales, : 416 Grains
~20 years in circulation, Average Wear: 0.1880 Grain, per year.




c. 1800: 8-Reales, : 416 Grains
c.1800: 1,000 S$ Dollars (???) ~866.5 Ozt



c.1805: Bonneville's estimation, dated?

1805: S$ 1. (Avg, Par? or Assumed New-ish Weight?) = 0.8675 Ozt  
1805: 1,000 S$ Dollars (???)  =  867.5 Ozt 






c.1805: New Spanish American $ 1. = 0.868 Ozt (416.64 Grains)
c.1805: New Spanish $ 1. = 0.8675 Ozt (416.4 Grains)
c.1805: Avg Best, Circulated S$ 1. = 0.865 Ozt (415.2 Grains)

 




1807: S$ 1. = 0.866 Ozt (415.68 Grains)
 


Amsterdam, c.1808? or earlier:

Where 100 Amsterdam Marks = 791.11 Ozt






Kelly (1811) noted that bags of circulated Spanish Silver Dollars were calculated S$ 2. short at the standard weight. It appears Dollars were sorted by date/type!  Pre-1772 Dollars were .910 Fine Ag (+1.34% better) and +2.33% more valuable; 1772-1808 were .898 Fine Ag, and discounted to market demand, presumably.


Amsterdam, 1809:

914 New Pillar Dollars 100 Amsterdam Marks = 791.11 Ozt; S$ 1. = 0.865548 Ozt
916 Circulated Pillar Dollars 100 Amsterdam Marks = 791.11 Ozt; S$ 1. = 0.863658 Ozt


 

London, 1808:

Pillar Dollar assayed .897917 Fine Ag. + (presume S$ 1. = 0.865548 Ozt)



 
London, 1809:

Where 1 Marca = 7.41 OztS$ 1,000 = 870.1 Ozt; S$ 1. = 0.8701 Ozt; 

1809: S$ 1. = 0.866 Ozt
1809: 1,000 S$ Dollars (???) = 866 Ozt

 




12/10/1810:

1807-13: "Full Weight" S$ 1. = 0.86458 Ozt (415 Grains)

 


 

 
c.1816: Hypothetical? Where S$ 1,000. are 845.83 Ozt

S$ 1. = 0.845833335 Ozt (406 Grains)



 

c.1817?:

English Assay: S$ 1. = 0.8665 Ozt, 0.890504811 Fine = 
Fine Ag: 0.771770835 Ozt; 370.45 Grains; ~24 g. 

French Assay: S$ 1. = 0.867491456 Ozt; 416.396 Grains (26.982 g.) 
0.896 Fine = Fine Ag: 0.777272345 Ozt; 373.09 Grains; 24.175872 g.   

Avg Lightly Worn: 0.8665 Ozt, 415.92 Grains; 26.9511633 g. 
Avg "Worn": .866 Ozt, 415.68 Grains; 26.93561 g. 

"Worn" -0.05777 %

 


The US Mint weight estimate differs from the commercial weight reported by an excess of 0.282552 Grains (18.31 Milligrams) per S$ 1. Coin.

1821: S$ 1. = 0.86667445 Ozt (416.003736 Grains)




1821:
S$ 1. (South American Coin) = 0.8660858 Ozt





Austria, 1822???:

 

1827:
Where 1 Ozt S$ 1. Silver 0.897916667 Fine (431 Grains Fine Ag) = USD$ 1.160943
and 1 S$ (0.897916667 Fine) = USD$ 1.00003, the S$1. weighs 413.46948 Grains (0.86139475 Ozt; 26.7923722 g. or -1.4986% loss from the true Spanish Mint Weight.

1827: S$ 1. weighed 0.86139475 Ozt (413.46948 grains) 


USA, 1827:
 

India, 1828: 

'Recent Coinage' M$ Silver Dollar of Agustín de Iturbide 1822-1824 and the Primera República Federal (1824-1827). Where M$ 100. weighed the Calcutta Sicca Weight 232.6770833, or (where 1 Rupee = 0.374305554 Ozt) 87.09 Ozt,

1828: 'Recent' M$1 (1822-1827?) = 0.870923246 Ozt.

Where P$ 100. weighed the Calcutta Sicca Weight 231.0365, or (where 1 Rupee = 0.374305554 Ozt) 86.478 Ozt,

1828: 'Recent' P$1 (182?) = 0.864782 Ozt.  

Where S$ 100. weighed the Calcutta Sicca Weight 231.25, or (where 1 Rupee = 0.374305554 Ozt) 86.558 Ozt. Given the relatively high weight recorded, it would appear 'better weight' S$ were sent to India and China

1828: Old Spanish S$1 (180?) = 0.86558 Ozt. 


M$ 1. = Sa. Rs. 2.057508
P$ 1. = Sa. Rs. 2.080469



USA, 1829:
Spanish Dollars "not current" : none since 1814; ~50% prior to 1792, ~90% dated from 1729-1809. Where the Spanish Dollar originally weighed 419.76, the loss ("1%") should be 4.1976 Grains. However, the US Mint/Alexander Hamilton had originally assumed the S$ weighed 416 Grains; "1%" loss reduced the S$ 1. to 411.84 Grains on average, -1.8868% below the true Spanish Mint Weight. "1%" is probably a rounded percentage!

1829: S$ 1. weighed 0.858 Ozt (411.84 grains





 



 




9/1829: Philadelphia Mint 

c.1825: Regal Weight S$ 1. (theoretical) ~0.8708 Ozt (418 grains);
c.1825: "New" S$ 1. weighed 0.8675 Ozt (416.4 grains) : 1,000 = 867.5 Ozt

c.1825: Circulated S$ 1. weighed 0.86458 Ozt (415 grains) : 1,000 = 864.5 Ozt
 
 

USA, 5/27/1830:

Theoretical par, not actual average weight of circulating S$s.

1829/30: S$ 1. weighed 0.866 Ozt (416 grains); 
(1,000 S$1. of this weight should total 866.65 Ozt.) 
 


1831: 
Where $1,000 in Spanish +US Silver Dollars weighed 865.067 Ozt, at the assumed Wear-Rate of 0.081395349 Grain/per year from 419.75 Grains, per 8-Reales, the average years circulated would be ~53-56 years (Median: 1774.) It is more probable that lower weight ex-Colonial Pesos (nominally "Spanish Dollars") predominated ; likewise, the average years circulated should be much less. 

1831: S$ 1. weighed 0.865 Ozt (415.232 grains);

Citation: Thoughts on the Money and Exchanges of Lower Canada; Henry Samuel Chapman (1832)



1834: according to US Mint Master Hazard, from a small sample of circulating Pillar Dollars, S$1  weighed 414 Grains Troy. (0.8625 Ozt.)


1840:


Where the Russian Mint tolerated the circulated Spanish 8-Reales at a Standard Weight of 6.30208333 Zolotnik = ~26.883 g, 414.87 Grains; 26.7182 g, 412.325 Grains

(414.87 Grains Troy; 0.8643 Ozt; 26.883 Grams) the Dollar was just 23.7565 Grams (366.62 Grains; 0.7638 Ozt) Fine Ag, a loss of -2.80% Fine Silver.  This can only be reconciled if the "Spanish" coins assayed had been significantly underweight, and the "standard weight" a best example.  In Russia, Spanish Dollars circulating ~60 Years later were presumed -2.80% light.

1840: S$ 1. weighed 0.865 Ozt (414.87 grains);





1848: Noback recorded Spanish Dollars weighed 27.07 Grams, .9028 Fine Ag = 24.44 Grams  (377.167 Grains Fine Ag)





Citation: Vollständiges taschenbuch der münz-, maass- und gewichts-verhältnisse, &c...;Christian Noback, Friedrich Eduard Noback

Madrid:

Athens:




c.1818: Assumption? "866 Ozt." is given as standard for Spanish Dollars long after the coins had fallen below that weight.




c.1832: (Uncertain date, prior to 1833) Shipping Insurance Etc. Charges likely correct.

Where $10,000 in US Silver Dollars weighed 8,660 Ozt, $ 1. weighed 0.866 Ozt.  This is exceedingly high, inconsistent with a scrupulous Montreal study (1831).

Citation: Calculations and statements relative to the trade between Great Britain &c;  W. F. Reuss (1833)







China:


1799:

Taylor's error: S$ 1. never weighed 422.53 Grains 



Hong Kong:
1826: 1 Tael  = 1.208 Ozt, 579.84 Troy Grains 37.573 g

 
1829:
1 Tael = S $1.3889
1 Tael = £ 0.2778
 



c.1834: 1 Tael  = 1.208 Ozt, 37.573 g


Hong Kong, 1846:




c.1848
Canton:
1 Canton Tael = 1.2079167 Ozt, 37.57 g


   
Shanghai:
c.1833: 1 Tael = 10 Mace = 100 Candareens = 1,000 Cash
1833: S$ 1. = 720. Cash; 7 Mace, 2 Candareens
1833: 1 Tael =  S$ 1.3889
 




India, 1834:


c.1891:


 

1895:
1 Shanghai Tael =  1.17854 Ozt, 36.6567 g ; 1.08033 Fine Ag, 33.602 g




c.1843:
 

1 Tael = M$ 1.39217 Mexican 1843 (Full Weight, .899)
1 Tael = S$ 1.32256 Spanish 1825, .898 Fine Ag
1 Tael = S$ 1.29474 Carolus/Fedinand .898 Fine Ag

c.1853:



W.D.Haggard's reported was issued on 4/28/1835 regarding Counterfeit Dollars in Tin. 


1834:

1834: S$ 1. ("Good" Pillar 1772-1825) = 0.8625 Ozt (414 Grains
1,000 S$ "Good Pillar" Dollars, 1772-1825 =  862.5 Ozt 


Where 1,000 'best weight' Pillar Dollars 1772-1825 ($ 1,000.) = 862.5 Ozt,  

 




USA, c.1840:

Where 1,000 'avg weight' S$ Globe 1729-35 = 854.167 Ozt, and 
1,000 'avg weight' S$ Globe 1736-71 = 856.25 Ozt,
1,000 'avg weight' S$ Globe 1772-88 = 858.33 Ozt.
1,000 'avg weight' S$ Pillar 1772-1808 = 860.42 Ozt.
1,000 'avg weight' S$ Pillar 1808-25 = 862.50 Ozt.




1844:  The Mexican Dollar was assumed to weigh 0.866 Ozt and .900 Fine, and par at full weight was £ 0.25/Ozt Fine Ag; whereas the circulating coin was 0.859133 Ozt @.900,      M$ 1.00 = £ 0.1933; given discrepancies the same price as the New USD Dollar Coin.
Par: £ 1.00 = USD$ 5.1744




c.1844, uncertain "full weight"


1843: M$ 1. = 0.86770833 Ozt, .899 Fine Ag = 0.78007 Ozt Fine Ag
1 Tael of M$ = M$ 1.39217 (1.208 Ozt ;  1.085992 Fine Ag)
 


1845:


c.1854?



1861:
S$ 1. (1797) = 0.8684 Ozt. (416.832 Grains) .896 Fine Ag
c.1797: 1,000 S$ Dollars (1797) ~ 868.40 Ozt
 
S$ 1. (1797) = 0.86164002  Ozt. (413.5872 Grains)
c.1861: 1,000 S$ Dollars (1797) ~ 861.64 Ozt

 ~63 years in circulation, (Best) Wear: 0.044647467 Grain, per year.
  
 


1906:
Where the Carolus Dollar was 0.838541667 Ozt, assumed .899 Fine
S$ 1. (Carolus Avg.) = 0.83854 Ozt. 
1906: 1,000 S$ Dollars (Carolus Avg.) ~ 838.54 Ozt


"Finest known example" : modern reproduction?



Peru. 8-Reales, 1808 (Lima) J.P., MS 64:  26.51 g (~409.11 grains)

S$ 1. (1809, Chile) = 0.8703 Ozt. (417.75 Grains) .896 Fine Ag
S$ 1. (1808) = 0.8684 Ozt. (416.832 Grains) .896 Fine Ag

S$ 1. (1808) = 0.838542 Ozt. :  -3.65% ; -3.44% Light
 ~96 years in circulation, (Avg.) Wear: ~0.15889 - 0.14929 Grain, per year.